What is creatine? This is a form of nitrogenous organic acid occurring naturally in vertebrates whose major role is to assist in distribution of energy to various body cells especially the muscles. This role is achieved through increased formation of ATP i.e. adenosine triphosphate.
Creatine is produced naturally by your body from amino acids especially in your liver and kidney after which it is distributed via blood for it to get used by your muscles. The highest percentage i.e. 95 percent of the total creatine contained in your body is located in your skeletal muscle. The manufacture of creatine in your body occurs from glycine, L-aiginine and L-methionine. The enzyme GATM i.e. (L-arginine: glycine amidinotransferase, EC 184.108.40.206) refers to a mitochondria enzyme which catalyzes the creatine`s biosynthesis first rate-limiting step and is mainly expressed in your pancreas and kidneys. The second enzyme in Guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase, EC: 220.127.116.11 is mainly expressed in your pancreas and liver.
The Phosphocreatine System
Creatine synthesised in your kidney and liver, is transported via your blood and is utilised by tissues requiring high energy levels e.g. the skeletal muscle and brain, via an active transportation system. Your skeletal muscle contains 2-5 mM of ATP which would make your muscles to contract for a few seconds. Fortunately, when the demand of energy by your body is very high, the phosphagen system smoothly re-synthesises both ADP and ATP with phosphocreatine`s help via a reversible reaction with enzyme CK i.e. creatine kinase. Your skeletal muscle contains 20-35 mM or more of PCr concentration. Additionally, in most of your muscles, the ATP CK regeneration capacity is usually high hence not being one of the limiting factors. Although the ATP cellular concentrations are limited, it is difficult to detect changes since ATP is replenished continuously and efficiently from huge pools of CK and PCr. Creatine is capable of increasing PCr muscle stores, potentially increasing your muscles capability to regenerate ATP from ADP for it to meet high energy demands.
Uses as a supplement
Creatine supplements are mostly used by sprinters, athletes, wrestlers, bodybuilders as well as other people who may wish to tone up their muscles. This is achieved through consumption of creatine 2-3 times the quantity that could have been gained from a diet containing high protein contents.
Synonymous with muscle growth Creatine supplement is made from amino acid, which in its part is naturally produced from the body in the kidney, liver, and pancreases. This therefore shows that Creatine is not a steroid but a product that is readily available in the body but in small quantities and therefore the need for supplementation.
One the greatest health benefits of Creatine supplement is the fact that it increases the size of the muscle tissues and therefore the overall strength of a person. Creatine supplement also speeds up the healing process from injuries while acting as a buffer of excess lactic acid in the body. By increasing energy levels and eliminating excess fat in the body, Creatine supplement increases the endurance level of the body. Lastly, Creatine supplements increases the water retention ability of the muscles thereby enabling a person grow bigger within the shortest time possible, which explain why it is so popular with bodybuilders.